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493rd Virtual Fighter Squadron 'Grim Reapers'
Basic Training Ground Lesson 01
FOR: Jane's F/A-18

Referenced for JF18=BT-FT 01.pdf

-FT Section Let us begin with the basics. You have no doubt flown before, but flying online is different; we need to
commincate effectively! So when you first enter the simulation arena, announce it on the radio! ex. "Sparky is up."

Use the standard brevity according to BVT (Brevity Test) as much as possible when flying on comms.
*You can use the text messaging if you have the time and wish to say something that doesn't pertain to the flight;
other than that, limit your voice commincation to a minimum.

1)Taxiing The brakes must be engaged at any point in time, when you do not wish to taxi!
Once cleared to taxi, release the brakes and increase the throttle. Do not exceed 25% throttle.
The minimum HUD-displayed airspeed is 60kts; you receive no speed readout below this speed. You should NEVER exceed
60kts while taxiing. If you exceed 60kts, retard the throttles to idle immidiately until the aircraft slows below 60kts.
Use no more than 3/4 rudder deflection for directional control; using more may lead to lateral oscillations at high taxi speeds.
Stay in the middle of taxiways. Once you reach the runway, hold on the taxiway. DO NOT enter the runway until given
permission. Once given permission, taxi onto the runway centerline and perform takeoff as instructed.
When you first enter the simulation, make sure you have your throttles at idle, and keep your brakes on.
Once you are cleared to take off by the IP, advance the throttles to 80% N1 (note: that is NOT 80% throttle, look down
on the EFD!). Once stabilized, release the brakes and simultaneously select MAX power (100% N1 and AB, full forward throttle
deflection). Make small lateral corrections with rudder (no more than 1/4 deflection) to track the centerline. Make NO longitudinal
stick inputs. Depending on gross weight, the nose will start to rise at around 130-160KIAS. As soon as the nose rises apply FULL
aft stick. When the aircraft becomes airborne, confirm a positive rate of climb and retract the gear. Continue to hold full aft stick
during this entire process. After retracting the gear, monitor the airspeed; as soon as it passes 240KIAS, release the aft stick.
Adjust the throttle and pitch as necessarry.
Begin climb as instructed by IP.


So here is where you start finessing the plane! The instructor will give you instructions to climb in one of six types of climbs:
i) Constant Rate Climb(Vy):
In this type of climb, you are excpected to maintain the rate of climb (RoC)
assigned by the IP. RoC is the rate at which you altitude increases. The RoC
readout in the F/A-18 aircraft is located just above the altitude indicator on
the HUD. Positive values are for climbs, and negative for descents. The unit
of measurement is feet per minute (FPM). The RoC is controlled by the
aircraft's pitch and power. To increase to RoC, you can increase the pitch
or the power. Pitch is usually more effective at changing the RoC. Once you
establish the assigned RoC, use minimal pitch and power setting changes.

As shown in the figure to the left, the aircraft is established in a 5000 feet
per minute (FPM) climb.

A resaonable rate to expect during a test is between 500-15000 FPM, to
be held for at least 30 seconds. Or until you have satisfied the IP.

ii) Constant Speed Climb (Vv)

In this type of climb, you are expected to maintain the airspeed assigned by
the IP. The airspeed readout in the F/A-18 aircraft is located on the left side
of the HUD. The speed can be controled with pitch or power. Power is
more effective at controlling airspeed. Increase power to increase speed
(and vice versa). You may also increase the pitch to decrease the airspeed,
or decrease the pitch to increase the airspeed.

As shown in the figure to the left, the aircraft is established in a 300 knot climb.

A resaonable speed to expect during a test is between 250-475 KIAS, to
be held for at least 30 seconds. Or until you have satisfied the IP.

i) Constant Angle Climb(Vx):

In this type of climb, you are excpected to maintain the Angle of Climb (AoC)
assigned by the IP. AoC is the angle between your aircraft's velocity vector,
and the horizon. The AoC readout in the F/A-18 aircraft is the velocity vector
(VV) (or Flight Path Marker[FPM]). Pitch angles are displayed every 5 on
the HUD. To hold the AoC, place the VV on the pitch ladder line that
corresponds with the assigned AoC. If the assigned AoC is not a multiple
of 5, you will have to estimate between the pitch ladder lines. To move the
VV, pitch or power may be used. At high speeds, pitch is more effective at
changing the position of the VV (add pitch to increase AoC, decrease pitch
to decrease AoC). At low speeds, power is more effective (add power to
increase AoC, decrease power to decrease AoC).

As shown in the figure to the left, the aircraft is established in a 15 climb.

A resaonable angle to expect during a test is between 5-45, to be held for
at least 30 seconds. Or until you have satisfied the IP.

Here is where it gets tricky:

iv) Constant Rate + Speed Climbs:
In this combination, you must hold both RoC and airspeed. To maintain both, you must use throttle and pitch.
Generally, power for speed and pitch for rate.

v) Constant Rate and Angle
The only variable you can control is speed; adjust your power as needed to maintain the correct speed that
acquires the assigned Rate and Angle of climbs.

vi) Constant Speed and Angle
In this type of climb, you must set your Angle as assigned, then adjust your power settings to maintain the correct speed.

For climbs the maximum allowable error is:
-Constant RATE climb (Vy)
*(+ or - 300 FPM)
-Constant ANGLE Climb (Vx)
*(+ or - 2.5)
-Constant SPEED Climb (Vv)
*(+ or - 20 KIAS)

Level Flight
Level flight is more than simply lowering the nose. To enter straight and level flight, place the velocity vector on the 0

Simply place the Velocity Vector at 0, adjust your power and pitch to maintain desired altitude and speed.

And remember for level flight the maximum allowable error is:
-Establish proper altitude
*(+ or - 200 ft)
-Set power as required to maintain desired KIAS
*(+ or - 20 KIAS)
-Insure Precise Headingltitude and Speed (as directed by IP)
*(+ or - 10 degrees)

To roll the aircraft, actuate the stick laterally using no more than 1/2 deflection. Once established at the assigned bank angle, return
the stick to neutral. If a lot of lateral stick was used, a little lateral stick in the opposite direction may be needed to stop the roll.
Once bank is established, use only minimal lateral stick inputs for small corrections. Add a little back pressure to make the
velocity vector stay on the horizon line. Crosscheck VV with the rate of descent readout which should read 000. Check angle of bank
constantly and correct as needed. A smaller bank angle will require less back pressure for level flight and vice versa. Hold
roll until on the assigned heading. To roll out, simply roll the aircraft to 0 bank (you should know how to do this.) and adjust to
maintain proper altitude.

Error tolorance:
Angle of Bank + or - 10
Altitude + or - 200 feet
Speed + or - 200 KIAS
Rollout Heading + or - 10
T I P: Begin smooth rollout 1/3 as many degrees away as your bank angle.
ex. In a 60 degree bank, begin rollout 20 degrees from desired heading

Descents are the exact inverse of climbs. Refer to the "climbs" section, above.
Confirm you have each item completed by saying so to your IP over comms, or via text message.

When preparing to land:
-Weapons Safe (Shift + F1) -- note word "SAFE" appears on SMS page.
-NAV Master Mode (M as needed) -- note both Master Mode lights out.
-ILS on (L) -- verify glideslope appears in HUD.

The IP will give you vectors (headings) to fly to. He will set up on on long final, straight in. Once he tells you to land, he will give you
no further instructions.
Slow down below 240KIAS. Once below that airspeed:
-Flaps to FULL (F as needed) -- verify "FULLFLAPS" displays in the HUD.
-Gear down (G) -- verify 3 down and locked (NOSE, LEFT, and RIGHT lights under and to the left of the EFD are lit.)

Slow to approach speed. Approach speed varies with weight; consequently, you should ignore the speed readout when landing.
Approach Angle of Attack (AoA) is always constant, and is about 8. AoA is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the aircraft
(your nose), and the velocity vector (the direction you are moving). There are two AoA readouts: the AoA indexer, and the AoA bracket.

(PICTURE)-AoA indexer The indexer is located to the left of your HUD, and consists of 3 lights.
(PICTURE)-AoA bracket The AoA bracket shows up next to your velocity vector (VV).

If the yellow circle of the AoA indexer is illuminated, you are on correct AoA for approach and landing. If on correct AoA, the VV
will be next to the middle line in the AoA bracket. If your AoA is too high (and therefore, speed too low), the green light will illuminate
on the AoA indexer, and the VV will be in the bottom half of the AoA bracket. If your AoA is too low (and therefore, speed is too
high), the red light on the AoA indexer will illuminate, and the VV will be in the upper half of the AoA bracket. note: it is possible for the
yellow circle to be illuminated in addition to either the red or green lights on the AoA indexer. If this is the case, your AoA is slightly too
high or too low (as dictated by a green or red light, respectively). On approach, you should ALWAYS be on the correct AoA (yellow
circle on indexer, VV in the middle of AoA bracket).

You change your AoA using PITCH!
To increase the AoA, increase the pitch, to decrease the AoA, decrease the pitch.

You adjust your glideslope use POWER!
If you are too low or too high, you need to adjust your glideslope. This is done with POWER, not pitch. When in visual range of the
runway, simply place the velocity vector on the treshold. Use POWER to do this, not pitch. Increase power to make the VV go up,
and decrease to make the VV go down. Use POWER. The pitch will be used to change AoA. If you are outside visual range to
the runway, you may use ILS.


ILS usage:

The localizer is the vertical bar on your HUD, representing your lateral alignment with the runway. If the VV is to the left of the localizer, you are to the left of the runway centerline: fly right. If the VV is to the right of the localizer, you are to the right of the runway centerline: fly left. Once the VV intercepts the localizer, turn to runway heading.


The glideslope is the horizontal bar on your HUD, representing your glideslope alignment. If the VV is on the glideslope bar, you are on glideslope. You should now start to descend at around 3. If the VV is above the glideslope, start descending faster than 3. If the VV is below the glideslope, maintain level flight, until the VV intercepts the glideslope (it will).



You should be established in a stable approach. If you are following the ILS needles, you will not have to make any corrections for touchdown (fly the approach, until you hit the runway). There are two things that must be ensured before hitting the runway:


On speed Angle of Attack (yellow circle on AoA indexer).

Rate of descent equal to or less than -800 FPM.


If you AoA is incorrect, as always, adjust it using pitch. If your rate of descent (RoD) is in excess of -800 FPM, at the last moment before touchdown, add a little bit of power. Watch the RoD decrease to -800 FPM or less. Make sure you stay on AoA!


Landing rollout:

As soon as all wheels are on the ground, apply the brakes (B), and reduce throttle to idle. Use rudders to track the centerline. Once you have decelerated to taxi speed (less than 60kts), release the brakes and taxi to the nearest taxiway. Exit the runway, and taxi to parking.














the ABCs of landing:
1. Check Weapon Safe
2. NAV mode
3. Turn on ILS
4. Align with runway heading (Localizer)
When speed is below 240 KIAS:
5. Lower Gear
6. Lower Flaps*
7. Check Alignment (Localizer)
8. Intercept Glideslope
-At touchdown:
-Insure descent rate above 800 FPM.
-Insure POSITIVE waveline angle (nose above the horizon).
-Brakes as required by ruunway length.

*People always say "but the flaps are on AUTO!", trust us, it works, this is how it IS done!

X) Conclusion Throughout the entire flight, the IP will be grading your maneuvers on several key components:

1)Promptness of maneuver (ie, don't wait forever to initiate a maneuver after its been ordered)
2)Precision of maneuver (ie, how close were you to your ordered specifications)
3)Coordination of maneuver (ie, did you fly smoothly with small stick movements, or abrupt ones?)

The Grades will be:

(2 Points) Q Within maneuver specifications.
(1 Points) Q- Outside maneuver specifications, but not to the extent deemed failing as assessed by the IP.
(-3 Points) U Exceeded Q- limits.

To pass BT-FT01 a student must accumulate at least 50 points of a possible 86.(for grading see JF18=BT-FT 01.pdf)

  **(IP is looking for a stable approach that requires minimal correction and NO abrupt maneuvers on short final)
***(In all maneuvers, the IP is looking for stability in the maneuver and precision of maneuver)